MISHTI Scheme for Mangrove Plantation


  • In Union Budget 2023-24 finance minister of India Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman Ji re-launched this schemeto implement in the whole country.


  • MISHTI stands for Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes.
  • The MISHTI scheme aims to increase the mangrove cover along the coastline and on saltpan lands in India.
  • The scheme is focusing primarily on the Sundarbans delta and the Hoogly Estuary in West Bengal.
  • The scheme adopts a participatory approach, involving local communities and NGOs to undertake mangrove plantation activities.
  • The ultimate goal of the scheme is to sustainably manage the mangrove ecosystem, preserve biodiversity, and improve the resilience of coastal communities to natural disasters.
  • 80% of the project cost is borne by the Government of India, while the remaining 20% is contributed by the respective State Governments.
  • It is implemented by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).

Objectives of the scheme:

  • The objectives of the MISHTI scheme are multi-faceted, aiming to conserve the mangrove ecosystem, promote sustainable livelihoods for local communities, and enhance the resilience of the coastal ecosystem.

The scheme’s objectives are as follows:

  1. Increase the mangrove cover along the coastline and on salt pan lands in India, with a particular focus on the Sundarbans delta and the Hoogly Estuary in West Bengal.
  2. Promote community-based mangrove plantation and restoration activities, involving local communities and NGOs in the plantation and maintenance of mangrove forests.
  3. Improve the ecological resilience of the coastal ecosystem by protecting against erosion, storm surges, and sea-level rise.
  4. Enhance the biodiversity of the mangrove ecosystem and conserve threatened and endangered species.
  5. Generate sustainable livelihood opportunities for local communities, such as ecotourism, crab farming, and honey production.
    • The MISHTI scheme is an ambitious initiative that aims to address the threats to the mangrove ecosystem while providing sustainable livelihood opportunities to local communities.
    • The scheme’s objectives are aligned with the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), reflecting the government’s commitment to sustainable development and climate change adaptation.

About Mangroves:

  • Mangroves are a group of trees and shrubs that live in the coastal intertidal zone.
  • There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees.
  • All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.
  • Mangrove forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator because they cannot withstand freezing temperatures.
  • Many mangrove forests can be recognized by their dense tangle of prop roots that make the trees appear to be standing on stilts above the water.
  • This tangle of roots allows the trees to handle the daily rise and fall of tides, which means that most mangroves get flooded at least twice per day.
  • The roots also slow the movement of tidal waters, causing sediments to settle out of the water and build up the muddy bottom.


  • Mangrove forests stabilize the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides.
  • The intricate root system of mangroves also makes these forests attractive to fish and other organisms seeking food and shelter from predators.

Syllabus: Prelims + Mains; GS III – Environment and Biodiversity

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