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1. Consider the following statements with respect to Article 142 of the Indian Constitution.

  1. Article 142 of the Indian Constitution provides a unique power to the Supreme Court, to do “complete justice” between the parties, where, at times, the law or statute may not provide a remedy.
  2. While the powers under Article 142 of the Constitution are extraordinary in nature, the apex court has defined its scope and extent through its judgments over time.
  3. In the Bhopal gas tragedy case (‘Union Carbide Corporation vs Union of India’), the SC in 1991 ordered UCC to pay about $470 million in compensation for the victims of the tragedy.

How many above statements are correct?

 
 
 
 

2. Consider the following statements with respect to criticisms against Article 142 of the Indian Constitution.

  1. The sweeping nature of these powers has invited the criticism that the powers under the article are arbitrary and ambiguous.
  2. It is further argued that the court then has wide discretion, which allows the possibility of its arbitrary exercise or misuse due to the absence of a standard definition for the term “complete justice”.
  3. Defining “complete justice” is a subjective exercise which differs in its interpretation from case to case.
  4. Another criticism of the powers under Article 142 is that unlike the legislature and the executive, the judiciary cannot be held accountable for the actions done by it.

How many above statements are incorrect?

 
 
 
 

3. Consider the following statements with respect to Money bills.

  1. Article 110 of the Indian Constitution deals with money Bills.
  2. A bill, which in the opinion of the Lok Sabha Speaker deals with taxation or the appropriation of public funds in the Consolidated Fund of India or the Contingency Fund is considered as a money Bill.
  3. In normal sense, both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabhamust pass a Bill before it can become law under Article 107 of the Constitution.
  4. However, under Article 109, a Bill which is introduced as a “money Bill” only requires assent from the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha merely has 14 days to consider the Bill and return it with recommendations.
  5. The Lok Sabha may either accept or reject the recommendations suggested by the Rajya Sabha and enact the money Bill into law.

How many above statements are incorrect?

 
 
 
 

4. Consider the following statements with respect to Money bills.

  1. Article 110 states that a Bill can be designated as a money Bill if it exclusively deals with certain subjects, like taxation, financial obligations of the government of India, the consolidated fund or contingency fund of India, or “any matter incidental” to the subjects listed in the Article.
  2. It also states that the Speaker of the Lok Sabha will have the final say on deciding whether a Bill is a money Bill or not.
  3. The Supreme Court upheld the Aadhaar(Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016, as constitutional in September 2018.
  4. The Speaker’s decision on whether a Bill is a money Bill or not, despite being “final” as per the constitution, can still be subject to judicial review.

How many above statements are correct?

 
 
 
 

5. Consider the following statements with respect to NPCI.

  1. The National Payments Corporation of Indiais an umbrella organization that operates retail payments and settlement systems in India.
  2. It is an initiative of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment & Settlement Infrastructure in India.
  3. It was founded in December 2008 as a not-for-profit organisation which was registered under Section 8 of the Companies Act 2013.

How many above statements are correct?

 
 
 
 

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